The first act of Umrah and Hajj is “Ihram”. The literal meaning of Ihram is to make undefined (forbidden). When a haji pronounces the Niyyah (intention) of Hajj and Umrah and utters Talbiyah, certain halaal (permissible) things become undefined for him. This combined action (Niyyah and Talbiyah) is called Ihram. The two sheets that a haji wears are figuratively known as Ihram but the real Ihram is Niyyah & Talbiyah. If someone wears these two sheets and does not declare his intention and utter Talbiyah, he does not become a Muhrim. That is why, before Niyyah and Talbiyah, he can cover his head during two rakahs of Nafl, an act which is not allowed in the real state of Ihram.
There are 3 obligatory acts of Ihram: Wearing Ihram Clothing, Niyyah (Intention), and Saying Labbayk
1. Preparations for Ihram
Comb your hair, shape the beard, trim your mustache, cut your nails, and remove unwanted body hair.
Take a bath with the intention of Ihram otherwise do wudu. Here it is noted that there are two ways of purification:
Purification of the body, shower or wudu.
Internal purification, sincere repentance on your sins. Say something like this: “O Allah, I sincerely repent on my sins and seek your forgiveness.”
3. Wearing Ihram Clothing
Men should remove all clothes which are Haram for Muhrim, and then wear only two unsewn sheets of Ihram (Any quality & color is allowed, though white color is preferable). Wrap one of them around the waist (that is called “Izar”) and put another one on the shoulder like Aba (that is called “Rida’”).
For women, the ihram is ordinary loose-fitting clothes that cover all of the body except the face and hands. In some countries it is a tradition for women to wear special clothes, such as white dresses or black cloaks, for ihram, but this is not required.
There are no restrictions as for women’s footwear. But for men, footwear should not cover the toes and ankles. Socks and shoes, therefore, should not be used by men.
It is an obligatory precaution to wear Ihram clothing before making intention and saying Labbayk.
4. Nafl Salah
If it is not makruh (undesirable) time, offer two rakahs of nafl for Ihram by covering your heads. It is preferable to recite Surah Kafiroon in the first rakaat & Surah Ikhlaas in the second rakaat.
Advice: If going to Jeddah by an airplane, it is convenient to get into the status of Ihram inside the plane. Here is what you do. Do everything at home or at the airport except Niyyah (intention) and Talbiyah. Have your shower, pray two rakahs of nafl but you are still not in the status of ihram because you haven’t done the main thing yet, i.e., Niyyah (Intention) and Talbiyah which is done at or before the boundary line called Meeqat.
Go to the airplane and sit down with the white sheets on. In a Hajj flight when you are close to Meeqat, the pilot will announce that this is the border line to make your intention and to say Talbiyah. Those who did not change their clothes before should do so now although it is not convenient inside the plane. It is a good idea to ask at the time of boarding if the arrival of Meeqat will be announced by the pilot. If not, make your intention and say Talbiyah on your own approximately one hour before you reach Jeddah.
If you are flying with a group, follow the instructions of the group leader.
5. Niyyah (Intention)
Now uncover your head and declare your intention. Making intention of Ihram as in the way that the pilgrim should intend not to perform the forbidded acts (that will be mentioned later) and consider them as Haram for himself/herself and performs the acts of Umrah or Hajj after that.
اَللَّهُمَّ اِنِّيْ أُرِيْدُ الْحَجَّ فَيَسْرِهُ لِيْ وَ تَقَبَّلْهُ مِنِّيْ
“Allahumma Inni Ureedul Haj fayassirhu lee wa taqabbalhu minni”
(O Allah! I intend to perform Hajj. Please make it easy for me and accept it from me.)
اَللَّهُمَّ اِنِّيْ أُرِيْدُ الْعُمْرَةَ فَيَسْرِهُ لِيْ وَ تَقَبَّلْهُ مِنِّيْ
“Allahumma Inni Ureedul Umrata fayassirhu lee wa taqabbalhu minni”
(O Allah! I intend to perform Umrah. Please make it easy for me and accept it from me.)
It is not necessary to utter the intention but it is enough to have this intention in the heart, but it is better to express the intention by words adding this to the internal intention.
6. Saying Labbayk
It is obligatory to say the Labbayk during Ihram with correct Arabic accent and it should be as follows:
لَبَّيْكَ اللَّهُمَّ لَبَّيْكَ، لَبَّيْكَ لاَ شَرِيْكَ لَكَ لَبَّيْكَ، إِنَّ الْحَمْدَ وَالنِّعْمَةَ لَكَ وَالْمُلْكَ لاَشَرِيْكَ لَكَ
“Labbayk, Allahumma labbayk, labbayka la sharika laka labbayk, Innal Hamda wan nimata laka wal mulk, la sharika lak.”
(Here I am, O Lord, here I am, you indeed have no partner, here I am. No Doubt, all praise and bounties are yours, and so is the absolute Domain. You indeed have no partners, here I am)
It is obligatory to say Labbayk during Ihram only once but sunnah is to recite it thrice. After that it is Mustahab to repeat that in different conditions as much as possible. E.g. while getting in and leaving a car, passing low and high lands, after awakening and after prayers. Men should recite Labbayk with a loud voice, while women should recite it in low voice.
It is obligatory that the pilgrim recites Labbayk when he/she sees the houses of Mecca during Ihram of Umrah al-Tamattu’, and at the noon of the day of Arafa during Ihram of Hajj, and at the time of seeing Kaa’ba in Umrah al-Mufradah. If the pilgrim has gone out of Mecca for Ihram, and if he/she is coming to Mecca from out of the city should stop and say Labbayk when he/she is entering the region of Haram.
Children also can become Muhrim for Umrah or Hajj, and if they can distinguish between good and evil they can say Labbayk with the intention (Niyyah), and if they cannot differentiate, then a person makes the intention and says Labbayk on behalf of them. Whenever a person is unconscious in Meeqat, it is possible to make the intention and say Labbayk on behalf of him/her.
Twenty-five acts, which are Haram for Muhrim, are not Haram for him/her before saying Labbayk even if he/she has made the intention and has worn the clothing of Ihram. Therefore, there is no punishment if the pilgrim performs one of the acts that are Haram for Muhrim before saying Labbayk; in fact, Labbayk is like “Allahu Akbar” at the beginning of the prayer that a Muhrim does not enter the state of prayer before saying that, and whenever a pilgrim has doubt that if he/she has said Labbayk or not, nothing is also Haram for him from the prohibited acts of a Muhrim.
7. Durood & Dua
After Labbayk, recite Durood Shareef & then the following dua:
Allah I seek your pleasure and jannah (paradise) and seek protection in you.
8. Acts that are Haram in the state of Ihram
When a pilgrim becomes Muhrim the following acts are Haram for him/her to do and some of them have atonement. Some of the Faqihs have mentioned them as twenty-five items, but we believe that some of them are Makrooh (disliked) that its explanation will be mentioned later.
These acts are as follows:
1- Wearing sewed clothing (for men)
2- Wearing a thing which covers all top of the foot (for men)
3- Covering the head (for men)
4- Covering the face (for women)
5- Wearing ornaments
6- Applying mascara and kohl
7- Looking at the mirror
8- Using fragrance
9- Applying oils on the body
10- Cutting the nails
11- Going under the shade during travel (for men)
12- Removing hair from the body
13- Performing marriage
14- Looking at spouse with sexual desire
17- Performing sexual intercourse
19- Killing insects
20 & 21- Extracting tooth and blood from the body
22- Telling lies
24- Hunting desert animals
25- Carrying weapons
Details of each prohibited act:
1. Wearing Sewed Clothing
Wearing clothes like shirt, cassock, trousers and underclothes are Haram for men in the state of Ihram. And it is an obligatory precaution to abstain from wearing any sewn clothes, woven clothes and clothes that their parts are attached to each other or have made been made like and are in the form of shirt, overcoat, trousers etc., even if it is not sewn and needle and thread have not been used in making them, it is a precaution to abstain from wearing all these clothes.
There is no difference between large or small in sewn clothes. However pulling blankets, which their edges have been sewn, over shoulders for protection from cold and such, or pulling that over the body (on the condition that pilgrim does not cover his/her head with that) has no problem, also it has no problem if the edges of Ihram clothing have been sewn although renouncing is a precaution.
Wearing a coin bag on the waist has no problem although it is sewn (coin bag is a little bag for carrying cash, coins). Also wearing a belt over Ihram clothing has no problem if it is sewn or not. Also wearing a wraparound even if it has made from a sewn fabric or not, but in all these cases it is Mustahab precaution that all clothing must not to be sewn.
Wearing a truss has no problem even if it is sewn, also carrying sewn bags which pilgrims carry on their shoulders or necks and place their needed objects in them has no problem, and there is no problem if they are sewn, too.
As we said before, it is an obligatory precaution that the pilgrim does not tie loincloth around the neck, but tying that around the waist, especially when it is needed, also tying Rida’ around or using a pin for fixing the position of Rida’ or Izar has no problem, but it is better to renounce that acts. The method, which is common among some of Hajjis, of putting a piece of stone on one side of clothing and fastening it with a rubber strap or a string to another side is also permitted.
Wearing all kinds of sewn clothing is permitted for women, except gloves, which are not permitted to wear.
The atonement of wearing sewn clothing in cases of necessity is a sheep, but if this act is performed because of ignorance or forgetfulness, then it has no atonement.
2.Wearing a thing which covers all top of the foot (shoes and socks)
Wearing shoes, which covers both the top of the feet like boots and also wearing socks in the state of Ihram is not permitted, even if they cover the shank or not. But if they cover a part of top of the feet, like straps of sandals and shoes (that a part of the top of the feet are shown by wearing them) are permitted. This ruling is exclusive for men and wearing socks and shoes has no problem for women.
If the towel of Ihram is long and covers the top of the foot, or the pilgrim for example puts a hot towel on the foot for reducing the pain, then these have no problem.
Whenever a man wears socks or shoes in the case of necessity or deliberately, this act has no atonement and obligatory precaution is to shear the topside of the shoe if the pilgrim forced to wear socks or shoes.
3. Covering the Head for Men
Covering all of the head in the state of Ihram is Haram for Muhrim men, and the obligatory precaution is that they do not cover even a part of the head. But covering the head with hands or with a pillow during sleep is permitted. Also putting the strap of bag on the head is permitted. Covering the face is permitted for men.
It is an obligatory precaution not to cover the ears, too.
Tying a handkerchief around the head because of headache has no problem, also drying the head with handkerchief or towel is permitted on condition that the pilgrim does not cover the head with that.
Whenever a Muhrim forgets and covers the head, it is Mustahab to say Labbayk again but it is not obligatory.
It is an obligatory precaution not to cover the head with “mud” or “henna” etc. or putting something like a basket on the head.
A Muhrim is not permitted to sink his/her head into the water, even if the rest of the body is out of the water, but pouring water on the head for Ghusl or other purposes and taking a shower is permitted; but a Muhrim should not sink his head into the water in the bathtub.
The atonement of covering the head is one sheep for men as an obligatory precaution, but in case of ignorance or forgetfulness there is no atonement.
4. Covering the face for Women
Covering the face is not permitted for women in the state of Ihram; even it is with a mask, fan or any other thing. The obligatory precaution is not to cover the face with mud or such like that.
Covering a part of the face in the way that is not called mask is not Haram, also covering the face during sleep or putting the face on the pillow or covering it by hands are permitted.
It is permitted that a woman pulls her veil down in the way that it shades half or all of her face, even if it sticks to the face or not. But the obligatory precaution is to perform this act only when she wants to cover herself from men and keeps her face open in other conditions (the round of the face can be shown in other than in the state of Ihram).
The atonement of covering the face is one sheep for women as obligatory precaution.
5. Wearing Ornaments
It is not permitted that men wear ornamental rings. Rings, which are used for blessings, are not a problem. Therefore, the pilgrim should abstain from wearing ornamental rings, even if they are used for ornamental purposes or blessings.
Wearing ornaments is absolutely Haram for a woman in the state of Ihram, but ornaments that she normally uses can be worn in the state of Ihram if she hides them.
Using henna is not permitted for men and women if it has ornamental purposes.
It is an obligatory precaution that a Muhrim (man or woman) abstain from wearing any other kinds of ornament. He/she should not wear ornamented Ihram clothing of sandals and abstain from any kind of makeup and decoration on the head, face or other parts of the body.
Coloring the hair has problem for a Muhrim if it is called decorating, even if he/she have not intended for decoration, and if it has no decorating purpose (like using henna for treatment) then there is no problem in doing that. Also coloring the hair and using henna before Ihram in the way that its effects remain until the time of Ihram has no problem, unless the pilgrim had intended for decoration for Ihram from the beginning.
6. Applying Mascara or Kohl
Applying mascara or kohl or black materials or other kinds is Haram for men and women in the state of Ihram if it is for decorating purposes. If it is not for decorating e.g. for eye treatment, then it has no problem if it is applied in a form other than decoration.
7. Looking at the Mirror
It is not permitted for men or women to look at the mirror in the state of Ihram for checking of make up or hair or beard etc.. But it has no problem in other purposes like looking the sides of the car, or observing the tooth or mouth by a physician, or looking at the mirror without seeing his/her own face, or looking at the mirror for seeing the condition of injuries.
Looking in the water reflection or a polished or glossy object for checking the condition of the face and hair similar things is Haram in the state of Ihram.
If a Muhrim looks at the mirror involuntarily then there is no problem. However it is better to cover the mirrors of the rooms in which Muhrims are staying there during Hajj in order that they do not look at the mirrors suddenly and involuntarily.
Looking into the glass of a window or eyeglasses from which the other side is visible has no problem.
8. Using Fragrance
Using fragrance like perfumes, musk, saffron, rose water and other thing by smelling or rubbing on the body or on clothing, or spraying in the room or eating fragrant foods are Haram for Muhrim men and women in the state of Ihram.
Eating fragrant fruits like apples and oranges is not a problem, but it is better to abstain from smelling their fragrance.
A Muhrim cannot wash himself/herself with aromatic soaps and shampoos, and it is necessary to abstain from putting these things beside the Ihram clothing, which causes them to be fragrant. Hajjis should not put these objects in their sacks of their Ihram clothing.
Whenever a Muhrim reaches a place where there are pleasant odors present, he/she should put something on the nose in order not to smell the fragrance, unless this act causes him/her strong hardship. But unlike this situation if a Muhrim reaches a place which has an unpleasant odor he/she should not close the nose but can pass that place quickly.
Smelling flowers is not permitted for a Muhrim as obligatory precaution.
9. Applying Oils on the Body
Applying any kind of oil or cream is not permitted for a Muhrim, even if they are fragrant or not. Even applying fragrant oils before Ihram in the way that it’s odor remains in the state of Ihram is prohibited. But applying non-fragrance oil and cream before Ihram is permitted.
Eating greasy food is permitted for a Muhrim, even if it causes the greasiness around the mouth or hand.
Applying oils or creams for treatment on the body is permitted.
10. Cutting the Nails
Cutting the nails of hand or foot, even cutting only one or some of the nails is Haram for a Muhrim, but if the nail is damaged and its presence causes harm or severe discomfort then it can be cut.
Whenever cutting the nail occurs because of forgetfulness or ignorance about the matter, then nothing is on the Muhrim, but if it is performed deliberately its atonement is one portion of food (750 gr) for each nail and if he/she cuts all of the nails then the atonement is one sheep. If the Muhrim cuts the nails of the hands and feet in one session then the atonement is one sheep, but if this happens in two sessions then the atonement is two sheep.
There is no difference between cutting the nails by scissors, nail cutter or even by tooth.
A Muhrim can cut the nail in case of necessity, but it is an obligatory precaution to pay the same atonement.
Whenever a Muhrim cuts his/her nail according to the fatwa of a person (or a quoting by another person) in the state of Ihram and blood sheds, then paying the atonement of one sheep is obligatory for the person who has issued the fatwa and even if blood does not shed then, it is still a precaution to pay the atonement.
11. Going under the shade during travel
A Muhrim man should not go under the shade during travel or keep a shade or an umbrella over his head. Therefore traveling on airplane or a roofed vehicle is not permitted for a Muhrim man, but it is permitted for women.
Going into a camp or under the roof of stations in middle of the way or in Mecca, Arafat, Mash’ar or Mena has no problem. Also passing roofed markets and tunnels, which have been made for pedestrians, is permitted.
Whenever a shade no effect on preventing one from sunlight and rain, men are permitted to go under that shade. Therefore Muhrim men can use roofed vehicles or airplane from dawn to sunrise or in full cloudy days, but using a shade on rainy nights has atonement.
Passing bridges in the way and staying in the shades of vehicles has no problem.
Ill persons and those whom sunlight harms them severely or is a strong discomfort can use roofed vehicles, but they should pay the atonement (the amount of atonement will be mentioned in the next article).
Whenever a Muhrim goes under the shade because of ignorance or forgetfulness then there is no atonement on him, but if it has been done deliberately or according to a necessity, then it has atonement and the amount of the atonement is one sheep for each Ihram, meaning that one sheep is obligatory for the whole Ihram of Umrah and one sheep for the whole Ihram of Hajj.
It is better to perform Zebh (ritual slaughter) for atonement of Umrah in Mecca and those related to Hajj in Mena, but it is permitted to delay this act and perform it in the homeland. If it is hard to find people who deserve the food, it is better to perform this act in the homeland, but Hajjis should be aware not to forget it.
A Sheep of atonement should be used completely by poor persons and Hajji can use none of that.
12. Removing hair from the body
A Muhrim should not remove hair from the his/her body, even if it is performed by shaving, scissoring or removing by any other means, even if a Muhrim can do it by himself/herself or forcing another person to do that. Removing even one hair from the body is not permitted and there is no difference between the parts of limbs of the body.
If a Muhrim knows that combing causes hair removal then it is not permitted to comb the hair of head or face, and it is a precaution that the Muhrim abstains from combing hair in the state of Ihram. Also a Muhrim should be aware that no hair is to be removed by scratching.
Whenever hair causes illness or severe discomfort, it is permitted to remove it but it has atonement and the amount of that will be mentioned in the next article.
Whenever a Muhrim shaves the hair of the head or both armpits of one of them deliberately, then the atonement of that is one sheep, but if he/she shaves his head because of a necessity then he/she has the choice of one sheep, three days of fasting or feeding six poor persons by giving each of them two portion of food (approximately one and a half kilogram). It is an obligatory precaution to pay the same atonement for removing the hairs of the armpit, but if the Muhrim removes a part or some of the hairs of the head, the face or beneath the chin, then feeding only one needy person is enough.
There is no atonement if a Muhrim removes a hair because of ignorance about the matter or forgetfulness, and whenever Muhrim rubs the hand on the body during Ghusl or ablution for prayer and hair is removed in this way then also there is nothing on him/her, but if he/she rubs the hand on the face and head or the body without any purpose, and hair is removed in this way, then it is an obligatory precaution to give some food to a needy person.
A Muhrim cannot remove hair from the body of another person, even if that person is in the state of Ihram or not, and even if it is performed by razor or scissor or any other instrument (but it has no atonement). Therefore people cannot shave others’ heads or faces in Mena when they are exiting from the state of Ihram, but they should exit from the state of Ihram first and then perform that act.
13. Performing Marriage
Performing marriage is not permitted for a Muhrim in the state of Ihram, even if he recites the marriage statement or deputizes another person to do that Even if the marriage is performed permanently or temporarily, marriage is invalidated in this way. If he knows about the prohibitions and stills perform the marriage, then that woman will be Haram for him forever.
It is also not permitted that a Muhrim recites the statement of marriage for another person, even if that person is in the state of Ihram or not and in this way marriage of that person is also invalidated, but that woman does not become Haram forever, and in none of these cases, the atonement is obligatory.
It is not permitted for a Muhrim to attend a marriage ceremony as the witness, also (as obligatory precaution) it is not permitted to testify a marriage, or propose for himself or another person.
14, 15 & 16. Looking, Touching & Kissing
It is not permitted for Muhrim to look his/her spouse with sexual desire, or place the hand on his/her body or kiss him/her; however looking and touching without the intention of pleasure has no problem and it is a precaution to renounce kissing without sexual desire.
Whenever a Muhrim looks his/her spouse or touch him/her should pay the atonement of one sheep, and if this act causes an ejaculation then the obligatory precaution is to pay one camel and if he/she kiss his/her spouse with sexual desire then the atonement is one camel, even if ejaculation happens or not.
17. Sexual Intercourse
Sexual intercourse with a spouse is Haram in the state of Ihram and this matter has three types:
a. Whenever Muhrim performs sexual intercourse with his/her spouse deliberately in the Ihram of Hajj before staying at Mash’ar al-Haram then his/her Hajj is corrupted, but it should be completed and retaken the following year. The atonement of this is one camel, and that man and woman should separate from each other (as an obligatory precaution) until the end of Hajj rituals or a third person accompanies them, and the next year they should also separate when they reach that place.
The ruling is the same for woman if she does it with free will, knowledge and deliberately, but if her husband forces her to do, then there is no atonement on her and her husband should pay twice the atonement. If they perform this act after Wuquf in Mash’ar al-Haram and before Tawaf of Nisa’ then their Hajj is correct, but they have performed a sin and should pay the atonement of one camel.
b. Whenever sexual intercourse is performed in Umrah al-Tamattu’, one camel is the atonement as an obligatory precaution, but Umrah is correct, even if it has performed before Sa’i of Safa and Marwah or before Taqsir and exiting from Ihram, but the Mustahab precaution is that if this has performed before Sa’i, then one should finish Umrah if it is possible and retake it later and if this is not possible, then one has to perform Hajj al-Tamattu’ the next year.
c. Whenever this act is performed in Umrah al-Mufradah before finishing Sa’i of Safa and Marwah, then the Umrah is invalidated and the atonement is one camel, and the obligatory precaution is to finish Umrah and wait for one month, then Muhrim goes to one of Miqats, wears Ihram again, and retakes Umrah al-Mufradah. There is no difference between obligatory and Mustahab Umrah, but if it was after Tawaf and Sa’i (and before Taqsir) Umrah is not invalidated.
Whenever a Muhrim performs sexual intercourse with his/her spouse because of forgetfulness, carelessness or ignorance about the matter, then it does not harm his/her Hajj or Umrah and there is no atonement for that.
If a man has a sexual relation with his wife without intercourse, then he should pay the atonement of one camel, but it is not necessary to retake Hajj in the next year, the ruling is the same for woman and in the case of Ikrah (duress), this is like past articles.
Atonement is one camel in all the above cases as obligatory precaution, and there is no difference between temporary or permanent spouse, also anal and vaginal intercourses are the same in this ruling.
The above rulings are the same in obligatory and Mustahab Hajj and Hajj by proxy, but in the case of performing this act proxy has the right of leasehold, but he/she should act to the duties above (all these are in the case of performing deliberately).
Whenever a Muhrim plays with his sexual organ and semen comes out, the ruling of that is the ruling of a man who has performed sexual intercourse with a woman which has been mentioned in past articles. If semen comes of because of playing with his wife or looking or visualizing such scenes, then atonement is not obligatory for him, but the obligatory precaution is that it has all rulings of intercourse which has been mentioned in past articles.
19. Killing Insects
It is an obligatory precaution that a Muhrim does not kill insects like mosquitoes, flies, cootiea etc, even if they are on his/her body or clothes or not, and does not kill any moving creature, unless they cause him/her annoyance or if they are malefic and dangerous like snake, scorpion etc. An obligatory precaution is that the Muhrim does not fling the aforesaid insects from the body, and if he/she has done it involuntarily, then he/she should give some food to a poor person.
20. Extracting blood from the body
Extracting blood from the body even it is done by phlebotomy, surgery, brushing or scratching in the way that blood extracted from the body, in other than the cases of necessity is Makrooh (disliked) and because some of Faqihs have consider it as Haram, then the Mustahab precaution is to renounce that. It is even better to abstain from giving blood by today’s methods in the state of Ihram, except in cases of necessity and for saving the life of a Muslim.
21. Tooth extraction
The ruling for tooth extraction is that if it causes bleeding then as the same as past article, it means that this act is Makrooh. But if does not cause bleeding then it is not a problem, although Mustahab precaution is to renounce that.
22. Telling Lies, Insulting and Priding
Lying and insulting are Haram in any condition, but these are inhibited especially in the state of Ihram, it means these are from the act of which a Muhrim should renounce in performing them. It is an obligatory precaution to abstain from expressing the superiority of himself/herself to others or expressing the weakness of others against himself/herself, and these three acts have been collected in the term “Fosuq” according to some Hadees quoted from the infallibles (a.s.) in the holy verse;
فَلا رَفَثَ وَ لا فُسُوقَ وَ لا جِدالَ فى الْحَجّ
(Let there be no obscenity, nor wickedness, nor wrangling in the Hajj.) (2:197)
Thus whenever a Muhrim perform these acts, he/she has done wrong but the Ihram is not invalidated, and the atonement of that is Istighfar (asking forgiveness from Allah). It is better than a person abstain from saying anything bad, evil and incompatible to the soul of Hajj and say nothing other than good words.
23. Disputing and Fighting
“Dispute” is prohibited in the state of Ihram as it is mentioned in the verse above, and here the purpose of “Dispute” is that swearing to Allah from enmity and hatred of another person for proving a matter and saying “بَلی وَ الله” it means that “Yes, I swear Allah that the matter is like this”, or saying “لا وَ الله” which means “No, I swear Allah that the matter is not like this” and there is no difference between Arabic, Persian or any other languages, any expression which has this meaning is Haram to say in the state of Ihram.
True or false swearing is the same in this ruling, but if it is false then it’s atonement is one sheep at the first time, and if it is true and it is repeated three times, then the atonement is one sheep. But there is no atonement for saying less than three times, although it is an illegal act and a Muhrim should ask forgiveness from Allah.
It is better that a Muhrim abstains from any kind of dispute, debate and enmity in the state of Ihram, although it performs without swearing statements which has been said before, but expressing hatred and disgust and avoidance of enemies of Islam does not only harm the Ihram, but it is one of the duties of Muslims against infidels.
Whenever a Muhrim says “I swear to Allah that do not perform this act” because of kindness (not because of enmity) or says that “I swear to Allah to let me do it for you” then this is not Haram and has not atonement.
24. Huting desert animals
Hunting desert animals or slaughtering them is Haram in the state of Ihram, also hunting of birds is Haram in this state and there is no difference that a Muhrim hunts alone or with the help of the others. Also pointing and referring the animal to the hunter, or tying and keeping the animal or eating the meat of a hunted animal (although another person has hunted or the Muhrim has hunted that animal before Ihram) are Haram.
Killing grasshoppers is not permitted for a Muhrim, therefore if he/she is passing a way in which there are grasshoppers, then he/she should change his/her way if it is possible, and if it is not he/she should be aware not to trample them. But it has no problem in inevitable case or if it causes strong hardness and discomfort, also the killing of harmful animals like snakes, scorpions and ferocious animals is permitted when they cause danger.
Zebh of livestock and farm animals like cow, sheep and camel has no problem in the state of Ihram.
Hunting sea animals is permitted for Muhrim.
A specific atonement had been defined for killing any desert animals. But because today this act is not common, we abstain from mentioning that matter in order not to lengthen the discussion.
25. Carrying weapons
A Muhrim should not carry weapons with himself/herself even if they are cold weapons or firearms, but it is a precaution not to use defensive weapons like shield etc. But in the cases of necessity, danger and fear from thieves, ferocious animals and enemies, using any necessary weapon is permitted.
The thing, which is Haram, is to carry the weapon like having a sword on the waist or having a gun on the shoulder or carrying it by hand. But if these are placed in the house, tent or trunk of a car of a Muhrim then it does not harm his/her Ihram although it is a mustahab precaution to abstain from that except in the case of necessity.
Whenever a Muhrim carries a weapon deliberately, then the atonement of this act is one sheep as a precaution.
Some Precautions regarding the Ihram Clothing:
It is an obligatory precaution that clothing of Ihram and the way of wearing be as it is common. This means that the pilgrim should wrap the loincloth (Izar) in the way that at least it covers the body from the belly to the knees and puts Rida’ on the shoulder in a way that it covers the rest of the body. There is no condition about the quality or color (White is preferrable) of the Ihram clothing, but it should not be sewn.
It is an obligatory precaution not to tie a loincloth around the neck (but tying it around the waist has no problem) and the best way is to tie a belt over the Izar.
Tying two sides of Rida’, also fastening that by a pin, or putting a piece of stone in one side and fastening that to the other side with a string (as it is common among some of Hajjis) is no problem, although it is better to renounce these acts.
If a pilgrim wears Ihram while he/she has a shirt or other common cloth on because of ignorance or forgetfulness, then his/her Ihram is correct, but he/she should immediately remove that cloth and wear only Ihram clothing, and if this act has been performed deliberately, then after removing the clothes it is a precaution to make the intention and say Labbayk again.
It is not obligatory to have Ihram clothing on all the time and the pilgrim can remove that for washing or changing or any other purposes.
Whenever a pilgrim is ill and cannot take off his/her common clothes in Meeqat, it is enough to make the intention of Ihram and say Labbayk, and if it is possible for him/her to remove his/her common clothes temporarily he/she should do it and wear Ihram clothing. And after that if it is not possible to continue with that clothing he/she can wear his/her common clothes, and if this act was not possible in Meeqat and after a while his/her health conditions got better for wearing Ihram clothing, it is an obligatory precaution to return to Meeqat (if he/she can) and wears Ihram again, but if it was not possible to return to Meeqat he/she should change the clothes in that place, but renewing Ihram is not necessary.
Wearing more than two parts of Ihram clothing for preventing from cold or heat or other than that has no problem.
All things, which are the conditions of prayer clothing, are also the conditions of Ihram clothing, therefore Ihram clothing should be clean and not being from the parts of Haram-meat animals or pure silk or interwoven with gold (there is no difference between men and women in this ruling as obligatory precaution, although men and women have difference in the matter of wearing silk and gold-interwoven fabrics during prayer).
The cases that impurity (being Najis) of the clothing for prayer has been forgiven, also implies on Ihram clothing.
Izar loincloth should not be see-through and it is a precaution that Rida’ should be either in this way.
Whenever the Ihram clothing becomes Najis, the pilgrim should wash that, and if it is not possible he will do it whenever it is possible (If Rida’ becomes Najis the pilgrim can remove it temporarily).